Ingenieurbüro Peter Rauch
Automatic translation from the German

The sound

Requests for the sound-protection in the own residential and working area are not put. Consequently, complaints usually remained in the single-family home over a defective sound-protection without success. If no minimum requirements are put, so one can sue also none. However, there is a judgment of the OLG Hamm from the 14.11.1993, -17 U 187/91. In this, it is clarified that certain minimum requirements for the step-soundfilling protection is even if there are not any prescriptive specifications to this or special contractual agreements were met. The mandatary owes a sound-protection, that corresponds to the general rules of the technology and can quite deviate from the DIN-standard, in every case. If a judgment comes after a matrix to the evaluation of the encroachment of the functional ability [1], so the function (wall or blankets) is impaired negligibly whatever means a less-value very important classified use-efficiency with one, therefore no subsequent improvement. This problem should also not be discussed further fully here. We completely simply assume following consideration. A roof in an in or duplex is developed so that somebody lives in it. Each inhabitant causes more or less noise in form of step-sound or Air-sound. Until now, a person only was in the not developed roof-projectile occasionally. Now, one also from the direction has blankets sounds. Until now, none existed, therefore one feels these all at once disturbingly whether now very loud or less loud. The whole problem noise or better sound is very complicated and, not to explain with few words. There is worked out literature enough very neatly to the sound-protection at easily-construction-walls and roof-projectile-development, whose connections and blanket-constructions, on which should be reminded here, [2, 3 and 4].

The hearing-sound leads to the encroachment, to the physical and psychic annoyance, breakdown and damage. How something similar has an effect in the practice, should be clarified with a small practical case in point. in 1990, I carried out a sound-measurement in an apartment, because the nightly music the neighbor in the ground floor in her/it 4. floor was found disturbing. After a certain time pegelte itself the measuring instrument with 27 dB one. All at once, the pointer leapt in direction 70 dB. This drive the streetcar of the type Tatra, that took away 50 m in a cirka, along street. The streetcar was felt as something quite normal.

As sound-streaming are mechanical, electromagnetic (for example transformer), aerodynamic (for example streaming out of fluids, gases or ventilators) and thermal (for example welding) possible. The human ear takes frequencies of 16 until cirka's 16000 Hz was. The sound stretches outside evenly after all directions. The sound-source releases a certain energy with it, that one sound-intensity name. If obstacles exist, like buildings, trees, comes through hedges, Wälle and other, it to the diminishing so Absorption (predominantly through conversion of sound in heat)(Sound-absorption-degree), Reflection and also to the overlay.

The Wind energy installations are a current topic.
"Until now, possible bodily injuries became through sound-impacts also from wind-industrial installations - determined particularly at children, at pregnant and at old people through researchers and doctors world-wide: u. a. Headaches, body-pains, accomplishment-refuse, accelerated heart attack, Abtötung of brain-areas, heart-bag and tab-thickening, hepatitis, late-night-break-in-epilepsy, micro-rips in the Bronchien, asthma, pneumonia, ear-infections etc." [6] on medical respects. scientific researches and the prevention are basis - minimum-indemnifications are to be paused. For example France: 1500 m on recommendation of the academy for medicine 2006, Scotland: 2000 m - regional-plans, USA case in point Wisconsin: 2500 m or NRW: 1500 m - according to mandate and on recommendation of the State Medical board of Registration.
"Problems with tieffrequenten sound-immisions are known... through issues of wind-strength-invested capitals (this) positioned near at residential-areas."[7]

The sound-pressure-level if the tenfold logarithm of the relationship of the square of the respective sound-pressure is p to the square of the defined reference-sound-pressure p0. The sound-pressure-level and all sound-level-differences are boasted decibel (dB) about the unit of measurement.
It is on this occasion about a logarithmic value and is badly comprehensible for the subjective sensation. For example, we feel a duplication of the sound 10 dB at a level-alteration of cirka with above 40 dB and below at smaller level-alterations. Also the frequency is crucial for the sensation.

If a wood-beam-blanket with cirka's 63 dB now shall with an about or development on a value of L'n, w 53 dB are improved, which high technical expenditure must be gone in for becomes clear so.

It needs a very extensive theoretical and practical knowledge in order to gain here acceptable results. The basic principle of a Schalldämmung takes place in it one the energy (sound-intensity) in heat changes. This can through large bulks or biegeweiche construction-materials as the feather-rails near dry-construction-walls are reached by the combination of both possibilities respectively to case in point. As well, the relegation of the sound, in which openings locked (air-sound-bridges) or are uncoupled transferring component parts (body-sound-bridges) of each other, must be interrupted. Here, also flanking component parts and byways are to be included in the contemplation. If this is not heeded, so sound-requests of constructions are canceled partial or whole. With the Projektierung, planning and the implementation, all component parts must therefore be included from the view of the acoustics. What is of use a double pillar-factory and zweilagig to beplant (metal-pillar-dry-construction-wall) if the simplest "construction-market-door", that shows additionally a wider air-split below after the mounting, then is put into the doorway.

The corresponding requests for it A - sound-level-values (A = hearing-threshold of the human ear, in the buildings, 2058 sheets are 1 in the DIN 4109 and outside the buildings in the ASSOCIATION OF GERMAN ENGINEERS inserted.

To the comparison, some sound-levels should be named:
Extraaurale effects

With 30... 65 dB (A)

With 65... 85 dB (A)

With 85... 120 dB (A)

Acoustics: Teach from the sound. It includes all sound-events, indifferently like and where they are created, is as a part of the mechanics, the musicology and the construction-technology with it. In the construction-nature, one distinguishes between space-acoustics and construction-acoustics. After usage, the acoustics restricts itself to the practically audible mechanical vibrations of the air.
Construction-acoustics includes all problems of the sound-expansion and the sound-passage between different residential-areas and workplaces, different spaces or a space and the outside. It includes the noise control mainly in the high-construction, differentiates itself against the machine-technical (house-technical) sound-protection as well as against the vibration-protection-technology, however. More final overlaps with the mechanical engineering and the statics.
Space-acoustics includes all problems of the sound-expansion and Hörsamkeit spaces in partial or quite complete, from the open-air-theater as far as to the small discussion-space and radio-studio. It is to be distinguished, the geometrical one, that wave-theoretical and the statistical treatment and approach of size and form of the relevant space. The standard sizes of a good space-acoustics are the reverberation-time, that Diffusität and the clearness. [5]

To the formula-collection sound / acoustics

[1] Oswald, R.; Abel, R.; guide for adding irregularities at new constructions. Research-report AIBaund IRB - publishing house 1995
[2] Colling, Francois; Learning from damages in the wood-construction DGfH 2000, S. 236-249
[3] company-writing, sound-protection with knob, DIN 4109
Sound-protection-requests, implementation-cases in point, arithmetic-law cases 1992, SS 1/30M /6.92 / Go
[4] mayor, H.; information-service wood part 14 rebuilding, modernization, consequence 3 more retroactive roof-projectile-conversions, development-community wood-construction in the DGfH 1992
[5] Bobran, Hans; Handbook of the construction-physics, vieweg 7.Aufl. 1994, S. 11, 12, 21
[6] Wolfgang Neumann; Balance brought forward State parliament Brandenburg 8.06.2009
[7] Robert-cook-institute in the federal-health-leaf 11/2007

Ingenieurbuero Peter Rauch

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