Chemical pollutants occur in the space-air, in the building material as well as in the house-dust. These work partially quite differently and lead to a health encumbrance so. Is the condition, disposition and constitution of the concerned things crucially. The elements are, that influence the effect of a pollutant (poison):
Dose relationship reabsorption, removal / decontamination, concentration, habituation (for example smoking), form of the action-amplification of other influxes, place of the impact, oversensitivity (skin, stomach, lung), somatotypology, sex, ages and duration.
The reception of chemical pollutants can take place through inhaling (cirka 10 per cent), through eating (cirka 90 per cent) or over the skin (penetration). 6 m3 are required air daily, to what about. 20.000 breaths necessary also low pollutant-concentrations are and so can accumulate in the respiration-organs. The chemical pollutants can fog on that occasion in gases, steams, smoke, toxic scattering, fluids and solid materials in stock is.
Among other things, reactions can latex-allergy, body-contact-allergy and chemical-oversensitivity (MCS - multiple Chemical Sensitivity) for itself in allergies, for example show.
If very high expositions of certain materials occur, so these can lead to paralyses or to the death. In the practice, tunnel-fires are very dangerous. About. 80 per cent of the fire-victims in buildings is killed by smoke-gas-poisoning.
However, a health reaction can also in form of pollutant-mixtures or in attendance of higher concentrations at mold-spores or Radon appear. Most effective method to the reduction of the pollutants in the apartment is the regular one and enough Ventilation. However, this is stopped by the intensified requests of the energy-savings-regulation.
Many technical products must to her/its/their manufacture, processing or to the attainment of wished qualities with solvent, Softeners, Fungizide, insecticide, is equipped and so on. As well, the chemical balance is postponed in favor of the end product. Over a certain period, the energy-poorer status, partially over inter-products, one, then places itself again. Solvents or softeners escape and occur in the space-air so. So, they lead, for example, with the PCP contained undesirable by-products Chlordibenzodiozine and Chlordibenzofurane to the illnesses. Benzene is converted into the body to a reaction-joyful inter-product of Epoxid, excreted what as water-soluble Phenol or responds with body-own proteins and becomes to the germ-cell for cancer (leukemia) so. It therefore is not always the individual materials respectively - mixture but also its inter-products, the outer influxes, the interactions or the combination with other materials or material-mixture for the health damage responsible.
The human being to 80 per cent is in our climate-zone in interiors, that are loaded higher normally with pollutants, as they of the outside-air.
Accomodation-poison, like formaldehyde or Active substances of wood-preventative, becoming normally overestimated. In a study of the guild-cash North Rhine-Westphalia, 2080 health-service patients, who believed to suffer from environment-damages, were examined after corresponding environment check by doctors. With 2 per cent of all inquiries, a connection between interior-pollutants and health-trouble could be proved.
Under this point of view, also the accomodation-poisons, which should not mean its downplayed, however, should be looked at critically.
So, low-molecular halogen-hydrocarbons can amount the 10 in the interiors opposite the outside-air until 50-fold. Even if certain pollutants gain only one fractional part of the MAK-value, too corresponding consequences can come over longer time, partially over years. It therefore is construction-materials important to use above all equipment and commodities, however, that set free as few as possible foreign-materials into the interior-air. Another simple and effective method is a sufficiently hygienic ventilation, that should lie with an air-replacement of at least 0,8 per hour.
formaldehyde can from-gases, if they are used in particular in Ortschäume under roof, for example, and are exposed the dampness of the space-air. As well, outgasing join Isocyanaten and polyvalent alcohols on, the alternatively is used into pure-foams and chipboards, if was done in the excess. Endangering originate from polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB). They found application in window menu or joint-poem-bulks as softeners until years ago. Pentachlorphenol (PCP, and Lindan are active substances in older wood-preventatives, that slowly from-gases over very many years. So, it can accumulate (moisture favors these) active substance for itself in the laundry-ground particularly in the dust and also in the laundry hung up to drying, for example. Generally, wood-preventative has from present-day view not to look for anything in the interior! Also earlier, the usage in the residential-area only was open quite decided Wood-preventatives narrowly and on a low plain allowable. The biological wood-preventatives are complete nonsense. Either one protects the wood with Fungiziden and/or insecticides and that simply is poisons. Other means don't bring any effective protection and are not to be therefore marked as wood-preventatives. Insect-growth-regulators, like for example the Farox, should be arrived on here only so far that this new wood-preventative-generation manages on lowest concentrations. Is Wood-preventatives in accordance with the DIN 68800 necessary, is so to be expected the lowest healths damages with wood-preventative with the official Prüfprädikat DIBt with proper application from present-day realization-stand on the human being with promising effect of its usage-purpose.
Water-soluble colors are offered as environment-amicable on the market. Shares of Ester or ether and also this in natural dyes contained Terpene being able to situated-ness-breakdowns leads. Originate with floor-coverings in link with the solvent-containing ones as a matter of priority Glues, how for example Toluol, an encumbrance, the solvent. With the acquisition of a wool-carpet or other nature-coverings from Coconut or sisal must be kept an eye that they are unbehandelt. However, there then is not any absolute protection against Moths. Also the wool-carpets decorated with environment-seals frequently contain the moth-preventative Permethrin.
The variety of the possible pollutant-sources and its combination-effect above all with from-gas-finishes Solvents lead to an unmanageable encumbrance of the interior-air. An evaluation of such mixtures is impossible. Loaded spaces or buildings become the space-air, the building materials and this through aimed analyses Scatter examine. The costs for the pollutant-analysis rarely are not higher than the too expectant redevelopment-expenditure on that occasion.
Even taken out tests (in order to save costs) and that is examined on pollutants through a laboratory, utilizes the concerned hardly anything, if recognized not the cause-source unequivocally, and the necessary measures are named. How this problem complicates is, should be represented at a case in point, where the inhabitants suffer from the symptoms, as it under MCS is summarized. In a settlement-house developed very beautifully in own-service, pollutant-examinations of 4 different experts were carried out. (Their technical competence here on no case should be questioned.) Each Prüfprotokoll yielded other pollutants. Until on the recommendation of the disposal of the 20-year old closet-wall, what of no change caused, no constructive solution-estimates were shown. The problem existed here that each investigator found one or also several pollutants in a building-corner. However, the entire building with outer and internal working elements as well as particular constructive characteristics was not taken into account. In the 2 hourly construction-absorption, 12 deceased possible influential factors and sources respectively were determined, with what several outer elements cannot be stopped.
The maximum workplace-concentration (MAK) by harmful to health work-materials, Godesberg is published by the commission fee to the examination of harmful to health work-materials of the German research-community in Bonn-bath. The values refer to 8 hours as mean value and are applicable to mixtures, that reinforce the harmful to health effect considerably. The observance of this MAK-value if no security gives against the appearance of allergic illnesses with people, who are inclined to it. With what does the different sensitivity of the viable human being be taken into account if possible.
Since Danger-materials can globally classified harmonized system after it January 20 2009 and is marked. Legal basis for this is the European regulation 1272/2008 EC, that at the in 31.12.2008, it was published.
© Construction-deliberation: Residential-climate | Index | Content | Lookups | Books / Download | 5/2005
Engineer-office work-formation and construction-biology Peter Rauch - Leipzig -