Ingenieurbüro Peter Rauch
Automatic translation from the German

Dust - occurrences and qualities

Matter with a grain-size of 1 to 500 μm is called dust. Cirka is nature-conditional 94 per cent it scatter. With the technical dust, a part is technologically conditional and the other part desired, like for example cement, flour and other scatter can accomplishment-decreasing and to the health encroachment leads. So, nichtfibrogene of scattering cause to bronchitis as well as to allergies and fibrogene of scattering to silicosis and Asbestose. (Fibrogen = damage to tissue-alteration in the lung)

When breathing, coarse dust is kept back in the area of nose, pharynxes and larynx as well as in the area of the Bronchien. Scatter with a grain-size of 12 to 5 μm remains only isolated in the lung, scatter < 5 μm normally reaches to the largest part into the lung.
The world-health-organization WHO reckons with that already 10 micro-grams of fine-dust per cubic meter of air cause a decrease of the entire population's life expectancy by one half year. "Feinstäube turned" into one of the most severe health-dangers in city-areas meanwhile, according to Dr. Martin Lanzendorf from the environment-research-center Leipzig-hall (UFZ)
Should be according to a current study of the EC-commission fee to be led back 65 000 fatalities per year on heart and cycle-illnesses in Germany, that caused through air pollutions or would be promoted at least.

Round 24.000 t fine-dust escape from the 14 million wood-heaters annually. Cars and trucks give 22.700 t fine-dust per year from. [3]

Since it January 1 2005 is the new EU-Feinstaub-Richtlinie in strength, that establishes new (smaller) limiting values. So, the measured value can exceed the limiting value of 50 micro-grams per cubic meter of air for fine-dust at most on 35 days per year. For example, the limiting value was exceeded in Munich already in the 3 months in 2005 35 days and in Leipzig-middle 25 times. The motor vehicle-traffic becomes as main-sources for the fine-dust (ultra-fine aerosol-particles < 100 nm) [2] amounted and particularly the increase of diesel-vehicles is valid here. Therefore should bring a remedy the implementation of the diesel-soot-filter. The flop with the filters 2007 still should be in reminder. The lock-out of all old diesel-cars with or without Nachrüstfilter from cities and communities will probably bring hardly anything. If the "ecological zone" can be used no more, bigger routes are built inevitably caused by the diversion.

For dust-particles, it gives neither limiting values nor a supervision-net to under 10 microns of diameter momentarily. It is feared that essentially more easily smaller particles and deep can penetrate into the human organism and is the most dangerously. [1]

One also should know, however, that the largest part of this of scattering of natural origin is. Per wind as well as. millions of tons dust from the Sahara and other deserts are whirled up storm. After each Hurrikan, one can determine him/it even in Florida in large volumes.

Fibrogene dusts

Silicosis and Silikotuberkulose can originate through fine-dust of free crystalline shingle-acid (Cristobalit, Tridymit, quartz).

Asbestose, lung-cancer and vicious tumor of the rib-fur can through asbestos-containing fine-dust (usually 3 MgO). 2 SiO2. 2H2O with fiber-structure of diameter < 0,3 μm and length > 5 μm, is caused. Exactly the weakly bound asbestos with what here the biggest problems caused. A material with a high asbestos-share and a Rohdichte of less than 1000 kg / m³. The known products are fitting Spritzasbest and easily-construction-plates like Sokalit, Neptunit or Baufatherm to it, for example. No direct health-danger of the fastened asbestos-containing materials out of, since from this material goes to emit none or only few fibers on the other hand. (Corrugate-asbestos and even asbestos-plates belong to the fastened asbestos [inferior share, and Rohdichte bigger than 1400 kg/m3].)

For the financial recovery is worth the asbestos-guideline and the technical period for danger-materials (TRGS) 519). The financial recovery of asbestos-containing construction-materials requires a high technical proficiency and can be restored in accordance with the specifications not without expert care and without corresponding protection-installation.

Allergic dusts

Through chronic or acute inflammations the breath-organs or the skin. To this, allergic bronchial-asthma and dermatitis count through Chromate (in wood-preventatives) and cement-dust, Nickellinks, flour-dust, scatter out of tropical woods, crudecotton, Flax and Hemp.

Corroding scatter

A damage originates through the formation of bases and acids, that destroys the tissue. To this, lime and chrome belong, for example.

Radioactive scatter

The damage takes place through ionizing radiation. Hears Thorium and radium to it so, that usually comes from the construction-underground also from the inner-building materials, however. A sufficient ventilation is for that reason straight with a ventilation-part payment of at least 0,8 per hour necessary. Tritium and Promethium are contained in activated light-colors.

Toxic scatter

The lung but other organs, like for example the liver or spleen, don't damage these. Illnesses become through lead, for example,Zinc,Vanadium, Manganese, and other causes. Can higher concentrations in the Altstäuben in attics, where wood-protective measures with PCP-haltigen wood-preventatives were carried out, so at PCP as is determined at the woodwork-materials even.

Still is fitting very small scatter with < 0,1 μm particle-greatness of it, for which one calls Koloidstaub. They can as well as occur in fog (steam) or in gas-mixtures.
"With atmospheric Nano-Partikeln... a quantitative chemical analysis often is difficult because of the low collective-pure bulks. The Volatilität (volatility) of individual particle-elements can give conclusions of the chemical condition of particles indirectly. Cases in point of substances transient with 300 ºC are ammonium-sulphate and organic carbon-links, a case in point of an important not-transient substance is elementary carbon (graphite, soot). It is expected that a bulk of the inhaled, not-transient particle-substances is deposited in the human body permanently." [2]

"Leipzig (dpa) cities is indebted to protect inhabitants of strongly busy streets from harmful to health fine-dust also with temporary driving-prohibitions if necessary. This follows from a decision of the Federal Administrative court in Leipzig of the Thursday, Az BVerwG 7 C 36.07)." [4]

Farther external links to the topic:
Environment-Federal office: Current number of the infringements of the limiting value: / air-data / trsyear.fwd
Environment-Federal office: Current day ticket: / air-data / map.fwd?measComp=PM1
Fine-dust-magazine of the federal-department of the environment:

Background-paper of the environment-Federal office:

Current measured values particle-number-concentration (IfT-Messstelle Leipzig):

GSF - research-center for environment and health to the topic: /2003/169_172_2003.pdf
Fine-dust and allergies with children / EC-research-project TRAPCA:
(The Health Effects institutes)
(Network on air Pollution and Health)
("Integrated Urban Governance and AIR Quality management in Europe"
(Workshop fine-dust, city-development-exchange Berlin)
(Saxon regional-exchange of environment and geology)

[1] Informationsdienst Wissenschaft e.V.
[2] Forschungsgruppe Troposphärisches Aerosol: In-Situ Charakterisierung, Prozesse und Klimatologie; Urbanes Aerosol und Gesundheit
[3] Umweltbundesamt, Lipp.Landeszeitung, 21.11.06, vgl. Kurzinfos 156/7
[4]Recht auf Schutz vor Feinstaub ist jetzt einklagbar, 27. September 2007,

Ingenieurbuero Peter Rauch

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Engineer-office work-formation and construction-biology Peter Rauch - Leipzig -

Further contributions: Allergy,Everyday life-poison, Color,Composition colors in the space, Color-effect big space, Color-effect small space, Residential-climate, Noise / sound, Thin / illumination MCS, Nicotin, Radon in the house, Pollutants, Vibration, Dust, Fogging